Type 2 diabetes
What is it?
Type 2 diabetes, also called “non-insulin dependent diabetes” (DNID) or “insulin resistant diabetes” or “middle-aged diabetes” and “acquired diabetes”, is defined by the presence of a chronic excess of sugar in the blood. (hyperglycemia).
Type 2 diabetes is defined by a blood sugar level higher than 1.26 g / l (7 mmol / l) after an 8 hour fast during two different examinations or higher than 2 g / l (or 11.1 mmol / l ) two hours after the controlled intake of sugar.
In this disease, there are two types of anomalies:
The secretion of insulin by the pancreas is changed.
The effects of insulin on the tissues are modified: we speak of insulin resistance.
Type 2 diabetes is considered to be a veritable “epidemic”: in Europe, it is estimated that there are more than 21 million type 2 diabetics and in France more than 2 million, or 3% of the French. Some territories are more affected than others: the overseas departments and the northeast quarter of France are the regions with the most diabetics. The progression of this disease is linked to lifestyle changes and longer life expectancy.
Diabetes usually begins between 40 and 50 years of age, but the average age of diagnosis is between 60 and 65 years. However, since type 2 diabetes is symptomless at the start of the disease, it is considered that more than a third of those affected ignore their disease.
Is there type 2 diabetes in children?
Since the late 1990s, the appearance of this disease has been observed in children and adolescents. It is said to be an emerging pathology. Specialists predict that the number of cases will increase sharply in the coming decades as this disease is closely linked to obesity. Like adults, this diabetes is, in fact, associated with obesity but also with a lack of physical activity, a family history and signs of insulin resistance. As children are mainly affected by type 1 diabetes, in-depth analyzes are needed to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.